7,000 years of history and settlement
For many millennia the Glauberg has been a powerful magnet for humans. No later than the 5th millennium BC settlers were attracted to the 8 hectares of the plateau on the edge of the fertile Wetterau. During the Urnfield Culture, in the 10th-9th centuries BC, the northwestern section of the plateau, where the slope is not so steep, was fortified. In the 6th/5th century BC the entire hilltop was then fortified with a timber and earth rampart (Pfostenschlitzmauer), and probably the entire hilltop occupied as well. The rampart was destroyed by a massive fire in the 5th century BC. After the fire a similar rampart was built on the same spot, while the area surrounding the Glauberg was included in a phase of monumental building. Two radiating banks – known as the Annex – led from the plateau down to the north and enclosed at their meeting-point a large water reservoir. A more extensive area on the south side of the hill was sealed off by an system of banks and ditches that incorporated a second rise, the Enzheimer Kopf, and two burial mounds were erected.
One of these – the large barrow 1 that has been reconstructed in the Archaeological Park – is also incorporated into a complex ditch system. Here, during the course of archaeological excavations in 1996, the almost complete Celtic sandstone statue, as well as fragments of three further statues, were discovered – where will the four statues have stood in Celtic times? The excavations at the barrow had already begun in 1994 and led to the recovery of remarkable finds in a total of three graves in the two barrows – and research into them has by no means been completed!
From the 4th century BC the Celtic installations gradually fell into disrepair. It was not until the Alamannic and Frankish periods that the Glauberg was once again of importance. The plateau was re-fortified in the 12th/13th century and the Hohenstaufen imperial castle Glauburg (Glouburgh), the remains of which can be seen in the Archaeological Park, extended.